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Glamorgan or Glamorganshire (Welsh: Morgannwg or Welsh: Sir Forgannwg) is one of the thirteen historic counties and a former administrative county of Wales. It was originally an early medieval kingdom of varying boundaries known as Glywysing until taken over by the Normans as a lordship.[5] Glamorgan is latterly represented by the three preserved counties of West Glamorgan, Mid Glamorgan and South Glamorgan. The name also survives in that of the county borough of the Vale of Glamorgan.

Although initially a rural and pastoral area of little value, the area that became known as Glamorgan was a conflict point between the Norman lords and the Welsh princes, with the area being defined by a large concentration of castles. After falling under English rule in the 16th century, Glamorgan became a more stable county, and exploited its natural resources to become an important part of the Industrial Revolution. Glamorgan was the most populous[5] and industrialised county in Wales and was once called the 'crucible of the Industrial Revolution',[6] containing the world centres of three metallurgical industries,[6] and its rich resources of coal.

The county of Glamorgan comprised several distinct regions: the industrial valleys, the agricultural Vale of Glamorgan and the scenic Gower Peninsula. The county was bounded to the north by Brecknockshire, east by Monmouthshire, south by the Bristol Channel, and west by Carmarthenshire and Carmarthen Bay. Its total area was 2,100 km2 (811 sq mi), and the total population of the three preserved counties of Glamorgan in 1991 was 1,288,309.[7] In 2001 it was around 1.4 million. In 1974 Glamorgan contained two cities, Cardiff, the county town and from 1955 the capital city of Wales, and Swansea. The highest point in the county was at Craig y Llyn (600 metres (2,000 ft)).


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