Glass

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Glass is an amorphous (non-crystalline) solid material. Glasses are typically brittle, and often optically transparent.

The most prevalent type of glass, used for centuries in windows and drinking vessels, is soda-lime glass, made of about 75% silica (SiO2) plus Na2O, CaO, and several minor additives. Often, the term glass is used in a restricted sense to refer to this specific use.

In science, however, the term glass is usually defined in a much wider sense, including every solid that possesses a non-crystalline (i.e. amorphous) structure and that exhibits a glass transition when heated towards the liquid state. In this wider sense, glasses can be made of quite different classes of materials: metallic alloys, ionic melts, aqueous solutions, molecular liquids, and polymers. Of these, polymer glasses (acrylic glass, polyethylene terephthalate) are the most important; for many applications (bottles, eyewear) they are a lighter alternative to traditional silica glasses.

Glass, as a substance, plays an essential role in science and industry. Their chemical, physical, and in particular optical properties make them suitable for applications such as flat glass, container glass, optics and optoelectronics material, laboratory equipment, thermal insulator (glass wool), reinforcement materials (glass-reinforced plastic, glass fiber reinforced concrete), and glass art (art glass, studio glass).

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