Glucose

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Corn sugar
D-Glucose

α-D-glucose: 146 °C
β-D-glucose: 150 °C

D-glucose or dextrose or grape sugar is the dextro-isomer of glucose (C6H12O6). The molecule is the mirror-image of L-glucose. D-glucose is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) and an important carbohydrate in biology. Cells use it as a source of energy and a metabolic intermediate. Glucose is one of the main products of photosynthesis and starts cellular respiration. Starch and cellulose are polymers derived from the dehydration of glucose. The name "glucose" comes from the Greek word glukus (γλυκύς), meaning "sweet". The suffix "-ose" denotes a sugar.

Glucose exists in several different structures, but all of these structures can be divided into two families of mirror-images (stereoisomers). Only one set of these isomers exists in nature, those derived from the "right-handed form" of glucose, denoted D-glucose. D-glucose is often referred to as dextrose. The term dextrose is derived from dextrorotatory glucose.[2] Solutions of dextrose rotate polarized light to the right (in Latin: dexter = "right" ).

Contents

Structure

Although it is called a "simple sugar" (meaning that it is a monosaccharide), glucose is a complicated molecule because it adopts several different structures. These structures are usually discussed in the context of the acyclic isomer, which exists in only minor amounts in solution.

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