Glycine

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233 °C (decomposition)

Glycine (abbreviated as Gly or G)[3] is an organic compound with the formula NH2CH2COOH. With only two hydrogen atoms as its 'side chain', glycine is the smallest of the 20 amino acids commonly found in proteins. Its codons are GGU, GGC, GGA, GGG.

Glycine is a colourless, sweet-tasting crystalline solid. It is unique among the proteinogenic amino acids in that it is not chiral. It can fit into hydrophilic or hydrophobic environments, due to its two hydrogen atom side chain.

Contents

Production and key properties

Glycine was discovered in 1820, by Henri Braconnot who boiled gelatin with sulfuric acid.[4]

Glycine is manufactured industrially by treating chloroacetic acid with ammonia:[5]

About 15 million kg are produced annually in this way.[6]

In the USA (by GEO Specialty Chemicals, Inc.) and in Japan (by Shoadenko), glycine is produced via the Strecker amino acid synthesis.[7]

There are two producers of glycine in the United States. Chattem Chemicals, Inc., purchased by Sun Pharmaceutical, who is an international pharmaceutical company based in Mumbai, India and GEO Specialty Chemicals, Inc., who purchased the glycine and naphthalene sulfonate production facilities of Dow/Hampshire Chemical Corp.[7][8]

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