Gospel of Thomas

related topics
{god, call, give}
{theory, work, human}
{church, century, christian}
{work, book, publish}
{language, word, form}
{group, member, jewish}
{water, park, boat}
{film, series, show}
{rate, high, increase}
{album, band, music}
{mi², represent, 1st}
{style, bgcolor, rowspan}

The Gospel According to Thomas, commonly shortened to the Gospel of Thomas, is a well preserved early Christian, non-canonical sayings-gospel discovered near Nag Hammadi, Egypt, in December 1945, in one of a group of books known as the Nag Hammadi library.[1]

The Coptic language text, the second of seven contained in what modern-day scholars have designated as Codex II, is composed of 114 sayings attributed to Jesus.[2] Almost half of these sayings more or less resemble those found in the Canonical Gospels, while the other sayings were previously unknown. Its place of origin may have been Syria, where Thomasine traditions were strong.[3]

The introduction states: These are the hidden words that the living Jesus spoke and Didymos Judas Thomas wrote them down. [4] Didymus (Greek) and Thomas (Aramaic) both mean "twin". Some critical scholars suspect that this reference to the Apostle Thomas is false, and that therefore the true author is unknown.[5] However Dr. Bruce F. MacDonald and other scholars point to a widespread tradition in early church documents, as well as some surviving Christian traditions, that Jesus had a twin brother, by the name of Didymos Judas Thomas.[6]

It is possible that the document originated within a school of early Christians, possibly proto-Gnostics [7] Some critics further claim, that even the description of Thomas as a "gnostic" gospel is based upon little other than the fact that it was found along with gnostic texts at Nag Hammadi.[8] The name of Thomas was also attached to the Book of Thomas the Contender, which was also in Nag Hammadi Codex II, and the Acts of Thomas.

The Gospel of Thomas is very different in tone and structure from other New Testament apocrypha and the four Canonical Gospels. Unlike the canonical Gospels, it is not a narrative account of the life of Jesus; instead, it consists of logia (sayings) attributed to Jesus, sometimes stand-alone, sometimes embedded in short dialogues or parables. The text contains a possible allusion to the death of Jesus in logion 65 [9] (Parable of the Wicked Tenants, paralleled in the Synoptic Gospels), but doesn't mention crucifixion, resurrection, or final judgement; nor does it mention a messianic understanding of Jesus.[10][11] Since its discovery, many scholars see it as a proof for the existence of the so-called Q source, which might have been very similar in its form as a collection of sayings of Jesus without any accounts of his deeds or his life and death, a so-called "sayings gospel".[12]

Full article ▸

related documents
Witchcraft
Heaven
Nephthys
Abraham
Serpent (symbolism)
Moses
Book of Daniel
Demon
Hecate
Sin
Sir Gawain and the Green Knight
Human sacrifice
Apollo
Athena
El (god)
Greek mythology
Isis
Odysseus
Elijah
Middle-earth
Pharisees
Bible
Shamanism
Son of man
List of characters in The Sandman
Reincarnation
Freyja
Virgin birth of Jesus
Moloch
Christian mythology