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Haifa (Hebrew: חֵיפָה‎‎); is the largest city in northern Israel, and the third-largest city in the country, with a population of over 265,000. Another 300,000 people (almost all of them Jewish) live in towns directly adjacent to the city including the cities of the Krayot, as well as, Tirat Carmel, and Nesher. Together these areas form a contiguous urban area home to nearly 600,000 residents which makes up the inner core of the Haifa metropolitan area.[1][2] Haifa has a mixed population of Jews and Arabs, although Jews make up a 90% majority. The Arab population used to be predominantly Christian, while 28% of the Jewish population is from the Former Soviet Union.[3] It is also home to the Bahá'í World Centre, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[4][5]

Built on the slopes of Mount Carmel, Haifa has a history dating back to Biblical times. The earliest known settlement in the vicinity was Tell Abu Hawam, a small port city established in the Late Bronze Age (14th century BCE).[6] In the 3rd century CE, Haifa was known as a dye-making center. Over the centuries, the city has changed hands: It has been conquered and ruled by the Phoenicians, Hebrews, Persians, Hasmoneans, Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, Crusaders, Ottomans, Egyptians, British, and the Israelis. Since the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, the city has been governed by the Haifa Municipality.

Today, the city is a major seaport located on Israel's Mediterranean coastline in the Bay of Haifa covering 63.7 square kilometres (24.6 sq mi). It is located about 90 kilometres (56 mi) north of Tel Aviv and is the major regional center of northern Israel. Two respected academic institutions, the University of Haifa and the Technion, are located in Haifa, and the city plays an important role in Israel's economy. It has several high-tech parks, among them the oldest and largest in the country,[7] an industrial port, and a petroleum refinery. Haifa was formerly the western terminus of an oil pipeline from Iraq via Jordan.[8]

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