History of Chad

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Chad (Arabic: تشاد ‎; French: Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad, is a landlocked country in central Africa. It borders Libya to the north, Sudan to the east, the Central African Republic to the south, Cameroon and Nigeria to the southwest, and Niger to the west. Due to its distance from the sea and its largely desert climate, the country is sometimes referred to as the "Dead Heart of Africa".



The territory now known as Chad possesses some of the richest archaeological sites in Africa. A possibly hominid skull has been found in 2002 in Borkou that is more than 7 million years old; it has been given the name Sahelanthropus tchadensis. In 1996 a hominid jaw was found and given the scientific name Australopithecus bahrelghazali and unofficially dubbed Abel. It was dated using Berylium based Radiometric dating as living circa. 3.6 million years ago. During the 7th millennium BC, the northern half of Chad was part of a broad expanse of land, stretching from the Indus River in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west, in which ecological conditions favored early human settlement. Rock art of the "Round Head" style, found in the Ennedi region, has been dated to before the 7th millennium BC and, because of the tools with which the rocks were carved and the scenes they depict, may represent the oldest evidence in the Sahara of Neolithic industries. Many of the pottery-making and Neolithic activities in Ennedi date back further than any of those of the Nile Valley to the east.

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