History of Luxembourg

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The history of Luxembourg is inherently entwined with the histories of surrounding countries, peoples, and ruling dynasties. Over time, the territory of Luxembourg has been eroded, whilst its ownership has changed repeatedly, and its political independence has grown gradually.

Although recorded Luxembourgian history dates back to Roman times, the history of Luxembourg proper is considered to begin in 963. The following five centuries saw the emergence of the powerful House of Luxembourg, the extinction of which would put an end to Luxembourgian independence. After a brief spell of Burgundian rule, Luxembourg fell into the hands of the Habsburgs in 1477.

After the Eighty Years' War, Luxembourg became a part of the Southern Netherlands, which would pass to the Austrian line of the Habsburg dynasty in 1713. After occupation by Revolutionary France, the 1815 Treaty of Paris transformed Luxembourg into a Grand Duchy in personal union with the Netherlands. The treaty also partitioned Luxembourg, which had been done in 1659 and would be done again in 1839. Although these treaties greatly reduced Luxembourg's territory, they increased Luxembourg's independence, which was confirmed after the Luxembourg Crisis in 1867.

In the following decades, Luxembourg fell further into Germany's sphere of influence, particularly after the creation of a separate ruling house in 1890. Luxembourg was occupied by Germany from 1914 until 1918 and again from 1940 until 1944. Since the Second World War, Luxembourg has become one of the world's richest countries, buoyed by a booming financial services sector, political stability, and European integration.


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