History of the Republic of Turkey

related topics
{government, party, election}
{country, population, people}
{war, force, army}
{law, state, case}
{group, member, jewish}
{language, word, form}
{woman, child, man}
{film, series, show}
{church, century, christian}
{village, small, smallsup}
{town, population, incorporate}

The Republic of Turkey was created after the overthrow of Sultan Mehmet VI Vahdettin by the new Republican Parliament in 1922. This new regime delivered the coup de grâce to the Ottoman state which had been practically wiped away from the world stage following the First World War.

Contents

Single-party period, 1923–1946

The history of modern Turkey begins with the foundation of the republic on October 29, 1923, with Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) as its first president. The government was formed from the Ankara-based revolutionary group, led by Atatürk. The second constitution was ratified by the Grand National Assembly on April 20, 1924.

For about the next 10 years, the country saw a steady process of secular Westernization through Atatürk's Reforms, which included the unification of education; the discontinuation of religious and other titles; the closure of Islamic courts and the replacement of Islamic canon law with a secular civil code modeled after Switzerland's and a penal code modeled after the Italian Penal Code; recognition of the equality between the sexes and the granting of full political rights to women on 5 December 1934; the language reform initiated by the newly founded Turkish Language Association; replacement of the Ottoman Turkish alphabet with the new Turkish alphabet derived from the Latin alphabet; the dress law (the wearing of a fez, is outlawed); the law on family names; and many others.

The first party to be established in the newly formed republic was Women's Party (Kadınlar Halk Fırkası).[1] It was founded by Nezihe Muhiddin and several other women but was stopped from its activities, since during the time women were not yet legally allowed to engage in politics.[2] The actual passage to multi-party period was first attempted with the Liberal Republican Party by Ali Fethi Okyar. The Liberal Republican Party was dissolved on 17 November 1930 and no further attempt for a multi-party democracy was made until 1945.

Turkey was admitted to the League of Nations in July 1932. Atatürk has done several reforms, below is a list of Kemalist reforms:

Full article ▸

related documents
Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Politics of Andorra
Politics of Libya
Continuity Irish Republican Army
Politics of Latvia
Politics of Indonesia
United States presidential election, 1832
Monarchism
Politics of Iceland
Gerhard Schröder
Politics of Syria
Single-party state
Lech Wałęsa
Politics of Moldova
Aleksander Kwaśniewski
Referenda in Canada
United States presidential election, 1896
Whig Party (United States)
Politics of Seychelles
Guy Verhofstadt
Politics of Saint Kitts and Nevis
Democratic Party – demokraci.pl
European People's Party–European Democrats
United States presidential election, 1820
Politics of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Politics of the Solomon Islands
Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
Tom Daschle
Politics of Bulgaria
Politics of Slovenia