Hybrid (biology)

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In biology and specifically genetics, hybrid has several meanings, all referring to the offspring of sexual reproduction.[1]

From a taxonomic perspective, hybrid refers to offspring resulting from the interbreeding between two animals or plants of different taxa.[2]

Contents

Etymology

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word is derived from Latin hyba , meaning the "offspring of a tame sow and a wild boar", "child of a freeman and slave", etc.[4] The term entered into popular use in English in the 19th century, though examples of its use have been found from the early 17th century.[5]

Types of hybrids

Depending on the parents, there are a number of different types of hybrids;[6]

  • Single cross hybrids — result from the cross between two true breeding organisms and produces an F1 generation called an F1 hybrid (F1 is short for Filial 1, meaning "first offspring"). The cross between two different homozygous lines produces an F1 hybrid that is heterozygous; having two alleles, one contributed by each parent and typically one is dominant and the other recessive. The F1 generation is also phenotypically homogeneous, producing offspring that are all similar to each other.
  • Double cross hybrids — result from the cross between two different F1 hybrids.[7]
  • Three-way cross hybrids — result from the cross between one parent that is an F1 hybrid and the other is from an inbred line.[8]
  • Triple cross hybrids — result from the crossing of two different three-way cross hybrids.
  • Population hybrids — result from the crossing of plants or animals in a population with another population. These include crosses between organisms such as interspecific hybrids or crosses between different races.

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