1 °C (274 K, anhydrous)
-51.7 °C (hydrate)
114 °C (387 K), anhydrous
119 °C (hydrate)
Hydrazine is an inorganic chemical compound with the formula N2H4. It is a colourless liquid with an ammonia-like odor and is derived from the same industrial chemistry processes that manufacture ammonia. However, hydrazine has physical properties that are closer to those of water.
Hydrazine is highly toxic and dangerously unstable, and is usually handled while in solution for safety reasons.
Hydrazine is mainly used as a foaming agent in preparing polymer foams, but significant applications also include its uses as a precursor to polymerization catalysts and pharmaceuticals. Additionally, hydrazine is used in various rocket fuels and to prepare the gas precursors used in air bags. Approximately 260,000 tons are manufactured annually.
Molecular structure and properties
Hydrazine can arise via coupling a pair of ammonia molecules by removal of one hydrogen per molecule. Each H2N-N subunit is pyramidal in shape. The N-N distance is 1.45 Å (145 pm), and the molecule adopts a gauche conformation. The rotational barrier is twice that of ethane. These structural properties resemble those of gaseous hydrogen peroxide, which adopts a "skewed" anticlinal conformation, and also experiences a strong rotational barrier.
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