Hydrochloric acid

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–27.32 °C (247 K)
38% solution.

110 °C (383 K),
20.2% solution;
48 °C (321 K),
38% solution.

Hydrochloric acid is a solution of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in water, that is a highly corrosive, strong mineral acid with many industrial uses. It is found naturally in gastric acid.

Historically called muriatic acid or spirits of salt, hydrochloric acid was produced from vitriol (sulfuric acid) and common salt. It first appeared during the Renaissance, and then it was used by chemists like Glauber, Priestley and Davy in their scientific research.

With major production starting in the Industrial Revolution, hydrochloric acid is used in the chemical industry as a chemical reagent in the large-scale production of vinyl chloride for PVC plastic, and MDI/TDI for polyurethane. It has numerous smaller-scale applications, including household cleaning, production of gelatin and other food additives, descaling, and leather processing. About 20 million tonnes of hydrochloric acid are produced annually.

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