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Ingsoc (portmanteau of “English Socialism”) is the political ideology of the totalitarian government of Oceania in George Orwell's dystopian science fiction novel Nineteen Eighty-Four.


Fictionalized origin of Ingsoc

Ingsoc (“English Socialism”) originated after the socialist party took over, but, because The Party continually rewrites history, it is impossible to establish the precise origin of English Socialism. Oceania originated from the union of the Americas with the British Empire. Big Brother and Emmanuel Goldstein led the Party’s socialist revolution, yet Goldstein and Big Brother became enemies. One is unable to see big brother or goldstein really do exsist.

As political philosophy

The Theory and Practice of Oligarchical Collectivism, by Emmanuel Goldstein, describes the Party’s ideology as an Oligarchical Collectivism, that “rejects and vilifies every principle for which the Socialist movement originally stood, and it does so in the name of Socialism”.

Big Brother personifies the Party, as the ubiquitous face constantly depicted in posters and the telescreen, thus, Big Brother is constantly watching. Ingsoc demands the complete submission – mental, moral and physical – of the people, and will torture to achieve it, (see Room 101). Ingsoc is a masterfully complex system of psychological control that compels confession to imagined crimes and the forgetting of rebellious thought in order to love Big Brother and The Party over oneself. The purpose of Ingsoc is political control, power per se; glibly, O'Brien explains to Smith:

As metaphysical Pseudophilosophy

Metaphysically, Ingsoc posits that all knowledge rests in the collective mind of the Party; reality is what the Party says, the justification for its historical revisionism.[citation needed] With doublethink, the people believe what they otherwise know is false; in believing the revised (new) past, the new past is what was, hence “he who controls the past controls the future, and he who controls the present controls the past”.[citation needed]

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