Instant-runoff voting

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Instant runoff voting (IRV) or the Alternative Vote (AV) is a voting system that elects one winner by ranked choice voting. Instant runoff voting is designed to more accurately represent voter choice than First-past-the-post voting. As a form of preferential voting, voters mark candidates in order of preference with the numbers 1, 2, 3, etc. IRV is considered mathematically superior to First-past-the-post in single-person elections as it eliminates vote splitting, thereby reducing concerns about tactical voting and strategic nomination (Arrow's Impossibility Theorem).

The winner is decided as follows:
1) In the first round, votes are counted by tallying first preferences (in the same way as plurality voting, or First-past-the-post).
2) If no candidate has a majority of the votes, the candidate with the fewest number of votes is eliminated and that candidate's votes are counted at full value for the remaining candidates according to the next preference on each ballot.
3) This process repeats until one candidate obtains a majority of votes among the remaining candidates.


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