Institutional Revolutionary Party

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The Institutional Revolutionary Party (Spanish: Partido Revolucionario Institucional, PRI) is a Mexican political party that held power in the country—under a succession of names—for more than 70 years. The PRI is a member of the Socialist International, as is the rival Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD), making Mexico one of the few nations with two major, competing parties part of the same international grouping. However, PRI is no longer a socialist party[citation needed] in the traditional sense and its modern policies are seen to be like those of a centrist or even neoliberal party.[citation needed] Its membership in the International dates from the Mexican Revolution and the founding of the party by Plutarco Elías Calles, when the party had a clearer socialist orientation.

The adherents of the PRI party are known in Mexico as priistas and the party is nicknamed el tricolor because of its use of the colors green, white and red.

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The Institutional Revolutionary Party is described by some scholars as a "state party",[citation needed] a term which captures both the non-competitive history and character of the party itself, and the inextricable connection between the party and the Mexican nation-state for much of the 20th century.

Although the armed phase of the Mexican revolution had ended in 1920, Mexico had continued to encounter political unrest, and presidential elections were usually preceded by military uprisings. A grave political crisis caused by the 1928 assassination of president-elect Álvaro Obregón led to the founding in 1929 of the National Revolutionary Party (Spanish: "Partido Nacional Revolucionario" or PNR) by Plutarco Elías Calles, Mexico's president from 1924 to 1928. The intent was to institutionalize the Mexican Revolution. In the first years of the party's existence, the PNR was, above all, an instrument Calles, 'Maximum Chief' of the party, used to continue exercising power in an era known as the Maximato. The presidents of this period, Emilio Portes Gil, Pascual Ortiz Rubio and Abelardo L. Rodríguez were little more than puppets of Calles. This ended with the election of Lázaro Cárdenas, a candidate handpicked by Calles, in 1934. It quickly became clear Cárdenas was not accepting a subordinate role like his predecessors did. After establishing himself in the presidency, in 1936 Cárdenas had Calles and dozens of his corrupt associates arrested or deported to the United States. Cárdenas became perhaps Mexico's most-popular 20th-century president and most renowned for expropriating the oil interests of the United States and European petroleum companies in the run-up to World War II. He was a person of leftist ideas who nationalized different industries and provided many social institutions which are dear to the Mexican people and had the party renamed to Party of the Mexican Revolution (PRM). Cárdenas' successor Manuel Ávila Camacho gave the party its present name in 1946.[4]

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