
related topics 
{math, number, function} 
{work, book, publish} 
{system, computer, user} 
{country, population, people} 
{company, market, business} 
{area, part, region} 
{group, member, jewish} 
{rate, high, increase} 
{album, band, music} 

The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a unique^{[1]}^{[2]} numeric commercial book identifier based upon the 9digit Standard Book Numbering (SBN) code created by Gordon Foster, now Emeritus Professor of Statistics at Trinity College, Dublin,^{[3]} for the booksellers and stationers W.H. Smith and others in 1966.^{[4]}
The 10digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108.^{[4]} (However, the 9digit SBN code was used in the United Kingdom until 1974.) Currently, the ISO’s TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for the ISBN. The ISO online facility only refers back to 1978.^{[5]}
Since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland EAN13s.^{[6]}
Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure; however, this is usually later rectified.^{[7]}^{[dubious – discuss]}
A similar numeric identifier, the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN), identifies periodical publications such as magazines.
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