Java Database Connectivity

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JDBC is an API for the Java programming language that defines how a client may access a database. It provides methods for querying and updating data in a database. JDBC is oriented towards relational databases. A JDBC-to-ODBC bridge enables connections to any ODBC-accessible data source in the JVM host environment.


History and implementation

Sun Microsystems released JDBC as part of JDK 1.1 on February 19, 1997.[1] It has since formed part of the Java Standard Edition.

The JDBC classes are contained in the Java package java.sql.

Starting with version 3.0 , JDBC has been developed under the Java Community Process. JSR 54 specifies JDBC 3.0 (included in J2SE 1.4), JSR 114 specifies the JDBC Rowset additions, and JSR 221 is the specification of JDBC 4.0 (included in Java SE 6).[2]


JDBC allows multiple implementations to exist and be used by the same application. The API provides a mechanism for dynamically loading the correct Java packages and registering them with the JDBC Driver Manager. The Driver Manager is used as a connection factory for creating JDBC connections.

JDBC connections support creating and executing statements. These may be update statements such as SQL's CREATE, INSERT, UPDATE and DELETE, or they may be query statements such as SELECT. Additionally, stored procedures may be invoked through a JDBC connection. JDBC represents statements using one of the following classes:

  • Statement – the statement is sent to the database server each and every time.
  • PreparedStatement – the statement is cached and then the execution path is pre determined on the database server allowing it to be executed multiple times in an efficient manner.
  • CallableStatement – used for executing stored procedures on the database.

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