Kültepe

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Coordinates: 38°51′N 35°38′E / 38.85°N 35.633°E / 38.85; 35.633 Kültepe (also Kiiltepe) is a modern village near the ancient city of Kaneš or Kanesh (Hittite: Neša, occasionally Anisa), located in the Kayseri Province of Turkey's Central Anatolia Region. The nearest modern city is Kayseri, about 20 km southwest.

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History

Kaneš, inhabited continuously from the Chalcolithic period down to Roman times,flourished most strongly as an important Hatic/Hittite/Hurrian ciy, which contained a large merchant quarter (kârum) of the Old Assyrian kingdom, from ca. 20th to 16th centuries BC. A late (c 1400 BC) witness to an old tradition includes a king of Kaneš called Zipani among seventeen local city-kings who rose up against the Akkadian Naram-Sin (ruled c.2254-2218).[1] It is the site of discovery of the earliest traces of the Hittite language, and the earliest attestation of any Indo-European language, dated to the 20th century BC. The native term for the Hittite language was nešili "language of Neša".

Kaneša

The king of Zalpuwa, Uhna, raided Kanes; after which the Zalpuwans carried off the city's "Sius" idol. The king of Kussara, Pithana, conquered Level Ia Neša "in the night, by force"; but "did not do evil to anyone in it".

Neša revolted against the rule of Pithana's son Anitta, but Anitta quashed the revolt and made Neša his capital. Anitta further invaded Zalpuwa, took its king Huzziya captive, and recovered the Sius idol for Neša.[2]

In the 17th century BC, Anitta's descendents moved their capital to Hattusa (which Anitta had cursed); thus founding the line of Hittite kings. These people named their language Nešili, i.e. "the language of Neša".

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