Kellogg-Briand Pact

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The Kellogg–Briand Pact (also called the Pact of Paris, formal name: General Treaty for the Renunciation of War) was signed on August 27, 1928 by the United States, France, the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, Japan, and a number of other states. The pact renounced aggressive war, prohibiting the use of war as "an instrument of national policy" except in matters of self-defense.[1] It made no provisions for sanctions. The pact was the result of a determined American effort to avoid involvement in the European alliance system. It was registered in League of Nations Treaty Series on September 4, 1929.[2]

In its original form, the Kellog-Briand was a renunciation of war between only France and the United States. However, Frank B. Kellogg, the U.S. Secretary of State, wanted to retain American freedom of action; he thus responded with a proposal for a multilateral pact against war open for all nations to become signatories.[3]

The Kellogg–Briand Pact is named after its authors: Frank B. Kellogg and French foreign minister Aristide Briand.


Signatories and Adherents

After negotiations, the pact was signed in Paris at the French Foreign Ministry by the representatives from: Australia, Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia, France, Germany, India, the Irish Free State, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Poland, South Africa, the United Kingdom and the United States. It was proclaimed to go into effect on July 24, 1929. By that date, the following nations had deposited instruments of definitive adherence to the pact: Afghanistan, Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, China, Cuba, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, Guatemala, Hungary, Iceland, Latvia, Liberia, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Peru, Portugal, Romania, the Soviet Union, the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, Siam, Spain, Sweden, and Turkey. Eight further states joined after this date: Persia, Greece, Honduras, Chile, Luxembourg, Danzig, Costa Rica and Venezuela. [4]

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