Ketoprofen, (RS)2-(3-benzoylphenyl)-propionic acid (chemical formula C16H14O3) is one of the propionic acid class of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with analgesic and antipyretic effects. It acts by inhibiting the body's production of prostaglandin.
Ketoprofen was available over-the-counter in the United States in the form of 12.5 mg coated tablets (Orudis KT & Actron), but this form has been discontinued. It is available by prescription as 50, 75, 100, 150, and 200 mg capsules.
Ketoprofen is available also as a 2,5% gel for topical application.
Brand names in the US are Orudis and Oruvail. It is available in the UK as Ketoflam and Oruvail, in Finland as Ketorin, Keto, Ketomex, and Orudis'; in France as Bi-Profénid, in Italy as Ketodol, Fastum Gel, Lasonil, Orudis or Oki, in Poland, Serbia, Slovenia and Croatia as Knavon or Ketonal, in Mexico as Arthril, in Norway as Zon or Orudis, in Russia as ОКИ (OKI), and in Venezuela as Ketoprofeno under an injectable solution of 100 mg.
In Lithuania, ketoprofen is called Ketoprofenum and/or Ketoprofenas. For topical application: the name brands are Fastum with 2.5% (gel) which is over the counter and Ketospray with 10% (liquid spray) which must be prescribed. In Switzerland, an innovative ketoprofen formulation based on Transfersome technology for direct application on the skin above the site to be treated has been approved.
In some countries, the optically pure (S)-enantiomer (dexketoprofen) is available; its trometamol salt is said to be particularly rapidly reabsorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, having a rapid onset of effects.
Ketoprofen is generally prescribed for arthritis-related inflammatory pains or severe toothaches that result in the inflammation of the gums.
Ketoprofen topical patches are being extensively used for treatment of musculoskeletal pain. The patches have been shown to provide rapid and sustained delivery to underlying tissues without significantly increasing levels of drug concentration in the blood when compared to the traditional oral administration. Ketoprofen undergoes metabolism in the liver via conjugation with glucoronic acid, CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 hydroxylation of the benzoyl ring, and reduction of its keto function. Ketoprofen is used for its antipyretic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 (COX-1 and COX-2) enzymes reversibly, which decreases production of pro-inflammatory prostaglandin precursors.
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