# Kinematics

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It is natural to begin this discussion by considering the various possible types of motion in themselves, leaving out of account for a time the causes to which the initiation of motion may be ascribed; this preliminary enquiry constitutes the science of Kinematics.
ET Whittaker[1]

Kinematics (from Greek κινεῖν, kinein, to move) is the branch of classical mechanics that describes the motion of bodies (objects) and systems (groups of objects) without consideration of the forces that cause the motion.[2][3][4][1]

Kinematics is not to be confused with another branch of classical mechanics: analytical dynamics (the study of the relationship between the motion of objects and its causes), sometimes subdivided into kinetics (the study of the relation between external forces and motion) and statics (the study of the relations in a system at equilibrium). Kinematics also differs from dynamics as used in modern-day physics to describe time-evolution of a system.

The term kinematics is less common today than in the past, but still has a role in physics.[5] (See analytical dynamics for more detail on usage). The term kinematics also finds use in biomechanics and animal locomotion.[6]

The simplest application of kinematics is for particle motion, translational or rotational. The next level of complexity comes from the introduction of rigid bodies, which are collections of particles having time invariant distances between themselves. Rigid bodies might undergo translation and rotation or a combination of both. A more complicated case is the kinematics of a system of rigid bodies, which may be linked together by mechanical joints. Kinematics can be used to find the possible range of motion for a given mechanism, or, working in reverse, can be used to design a mechanism that has a desired range of motion. The movement of a crane and the oscillations of a piston in an engine are both simple kinematic systems. The crane is a type of open kinematic chain, while the piston is part of a closed four-bar linkage.