King George's War

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King George's War is the name given to the operations in North America that formed part of the 1744–1748 War of the Austrian Succession. It was the third of the four French and Indian Wars.

Contents

Causes

The War of Jenkins' Ear officially began when a Spanish commander chopped off the ear of English merchant captain Robert Jenkins and told him to take that to his king, George II. War broke out in 1739 between Spain and Britain, but was confined to the Caribbean Sea and the British Province of Georgia. The war widened in Europe with the outbreak of the War of the Austrian Succession in 1744, in which France and Spain were allied against Britain.

War in North America

News of war declarations reached the French fortress at Louisbourg first, on May 3, 1744, and the forces there wasted little time in beginning hostilities. Concerned about their overland supply lines to Quebec, they first raided the British fishing port of Canso on May 23, and then organized an attack on Annapolis Royal, then the capital of Nova Scotia. However, French forces were delayed in departing Louisbourg, and their Mi'kmaq and Maliseet allies decided to attack on their own in early July. Annapolis had received news of the war declaration, and was somewhat prepared when the Indians began besieging Fort Anne. Lacking heavy weapons, the Indians withdrew after a few days. Then, in mid-August, a larger French force arrived before Fort Anne, but was also unable to mount an effective attack or siege against the garrison, which had received supplies and reinforcements from Massachusetts.

In 1745, British colonial forces in the Siege of Louisbourg captured the strategic French Fortress Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island. On November 28, 1745, the French with their Indian allies raided and destroyed the village of Saratoga, New York, killing and capturing more than one hundred of its inhabitants. All of the English settlements north of Albany were accordingly abandoned. In July 1746 an Iroquois and intercolonial force assembled in northern New York for a retaliatory attack against Canada; however, the British regulars never arrived and the attack was called off. The colonial troops camped at Albany for the winter, but the following year again failed to launch their expedition. In 1748, Indian allies of the French attacked Schenectady, New York.

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