Kozan, Adana

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Kozan (formerly Armenian: Սիս, Sis, Ancient Greek: Σισιον, Sission) is a city in Adana Province, Turkey, 68 km north of the city of Adana, in the northern section of the Çukurova plain. The city is the capital of Kozan district. The Kilgen Stream, a tributary of the Ceyhan River (formerly Jibun or Pyramus), flows through Kozan crossing the plain south into the Mediterranean Sea. The Toros mountains rise up sharply behind the town. Sis was the capital of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia.

The population of the city has grown rapidly in recent years, from 15,159 in 1960, to 54,451 in 1990, to 72,463 in 2007 and to 74 521 in 2009 (census figures).



From 3000BC onwards there were Hittite settlements in all these plains behind the Mediterranean coast, based on farming and grazing animals.

The area then changed hands many times, eventually becoming Flavias or Flaviopolis in the former Roman province of Cilicia Secunda.

The Christian era

Sis (in Armenian: Սիս) or Sissu, Sision, Sisium had an important place in ecclesiastical history both the Armenian Apostolic Church and as a Roman Catholic titular see. If the identification of Flavias with Sis, which is probable, be admitted, it will be found that it is first mentioned in Theodoret's life of St. Simeon Stylites.

In the Middle Ages Sis was the religious centre of Christian Armenians, at least until the Armenian clergy installed a rival to Catholicos Gregory IX of Cilicia in 1441 in Vagharshapat (Echmiadzin). Lequien (II, 899) gives the names of several bishops of Sis, before and after Gregory IX.

Even prior to the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, Sis was an episcopal see and several names of bishops and patriarchs can be found in the literature:

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