Laws of science

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The laws of science are various established scientific laws, or physical laws as they are sometimes called, that are considered universal and invariable facts of the physical universe. Laws of science may, however, be disproved if new facts or evidence contradicts them. A "law" differs from hypotheses, theories, postulates, principles, etc., in that a law is an analytic statement, usually with an empirically determined constant. A theory may contain a set of laws, or a theory may be implied from an empirically determined law.



Conservative estimates indicate that there are 18 basic physical laws in the universe: [1]

Fluid mechanics

Force, mass, and inertia

Heat, energy, and temperature

Quantum mechanics

Others, such as Roger Penrose in his 2004 book The Road to Reality (subtitled "A Complete Guide to the Laws of the Universe"), argue that there are a large number of established laws of science. Some laws, such as Descartesfirst law of nature, have become obsolete.[citation needed] A rough outline of the basic laws in science is as follows:

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