related topics
{country, population, people}
{war, force, army}
{group, member, jewish}
{day, year, event}
{black, white, people}
{food, make, wine}

Dzongkha · Nepali

Hinduism · Buddhism

Nepali Indian · Tamang[2] · Gurung[2]
Rai · Limbu

Lhotshampa, or Lhotsampa, (Tibetan: ལྷོ་མཚམས་པ་Wylie: lho-mtshams-pa) means "southerners" in Dzongkha, the national language of Bhutan. The term refers to the heterogeneous ethnic Nepalese population of Bhutan.



The first small groups of Nepalese emigrated primarily from eastern Nepal under Indian auspices in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.[3] [1] The beginning of Nepalese immigration largely coincided with Bhutan's political development: in 1885, Druk Gyalpo Ugyen Wangchuck consolidated power after a period of civil unrest and cultivated closer ties with the British in India.[1] In 1910, the government of Bhutan signed a treaty with the British in India, granting them control over Bhutan's foreign relations.[1][4] Immigrants from Nepal and India continued to enter Bhutan with a spurt from the 1960s when Bhutan's first modern 5-year plan began, many arriving as construction workers. By the late 1980s, the Bhutanese government estimated 28 percent of the Bhutanese population were of Nepalese origin.[3] Unofficial estimates of the ethnic Nepalese population ran as high as 30 to 40 percent, constituting a majority in the south.[3] The number of legal permanent Nepalese residents in the late 1980s may have been as few as 15 percent of the total population, however.[3]

The government traditionally attempted to limit immigration and restrict residence and employment of Nepalese to the southern region.[3] Liberalization measures in the 1970s and 1980s encouraged intermarriage and provided increasing opportunities for public service.[3] The government allowed more internal migration by Nepalese seeking better education and business opportunities.[3] However, the most divisive issue in Bhutan in the 1980s and early 1990s was the accommodation of the Nepalese Hindu minority.[3]

Full article ▸

related documents
Demographics of the Netherlands Antilles
Demographics of Western Sahara
Demographics of the Northern Mariana Islands
Demographics of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Demographics of Luxembourg
History of Niue
Chita Oblast
Demographics of Lesotho
Demographics of San Marino
Ethnic nationalism
Demographics of Martinique
Demographics of Bermuda
Saint Lucia
Demographics of Kiribati
Rift Valley Province
Demographics of Bahrain
Demographics of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Foreign relations of Albania
Demographics of Mongolia
Dutch East Indies
Vipava, Slovenia
Demographics of Greenland
Liao Dynasty
Demographics of Tuvalu
Demographics of Saint Kitts and Nevis