List of German monarchs

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This article lists the German monarchs, ruling over the territory of Germany from the creation of a separate Eastern Frankish Kingdom in 843 until the end of German monarchy in 1918.

The relationship between the title of "king" and "emperor" in the area that is today called Germany is just as complicated as the history and the structure of the Holy Roman Empire itself. The following remarks may clarify things a little (for details, refer to the Holy Roman Empire article):


Eastern Frankish Kingdom, later the German Kingdom, 843-1806

This section covers the Eastern Frankish Kingdom, the eastern portion of the Frankish Empire after its partition by the Treaty of Verdun in 843. Later it became known as the Kingdom of Germany, which was the chief (and then sole) component of the Holy Roman Empire (of the German Nation).

The German Kingdom comprised not only the territory of modern Germany, but also Austria, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Slovenia, the Low Countries, as well as parts of modern France and Poland.


Emperors are listed in bold. Rival kings, anti-kings, and junior co-regents are italicized.

Imperial vicars

During interregna, imperial authority was exercised by two imperial vicars — the Elector of Saxony, in his role as Count Palatine of Saxony exercised this office in northern Germany, and the Elector Palatine, as Count Palatine of the Rhine, exercised it in southern Germany. The confusion over the Palatine electorate during the Thirty Years War and after led to some confusion about who the rightful vicar was in the later years of the Empire.

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