Llywelyn the Great

related topics
{son, year, death}
{war, force, army}
{area, part, region}
{church, century, christian}
{style, bgcolor, rowspan}
{law, state, case}
{land, century, early}
{water, park, boat}
{language, word, form}

Llywelyn the Great (Welsh: Llywelyn Fawr, Welsh: [ɬəˈwɛlɨn]), full name Llywelyn ab Iorwerth, (c. 1172 – 11 April 1240) was a Prince of Gwynedd in north Wales and eventually de facto ruler over most of Wales. He is occasionally called Llywelyn I of Wales.[1] By a combination of war and diplomacy he dominated Wales for forty years.

Llywelyn had a hunting lodge in the uplands at Trefriw.[2]

During Llywelyn's boyhood, Gwynedd was ruled by two of his uncles, who split the kingdom between them, following the death of Llywelyn's grandfather, Owain Gwynedd, in 1170. Llywelyn had a strong claim to be the legitimate ruler and began a campaign to win power at an early age. He was sole ruler of Gwynedd by 1200, and made a treaty with King John of England that year. Llywelyn's relations with John remained good for the next ten years. He married John's natural daughter Joan, in 1205, and when John arrested Gwenwynwyn ab Owain of Powys in 1208, Llywelyn took the opportunity to annex southern Powys. In 1210, relations deteriorated and John invaded Gwynedd in 1211. Llywelyn was forced to seek terms and to give up all lands east of the River Conwy but was able to recover them the following year in alliance with the other Welsh princes. He allied himself with the barons who forced John to sign the Magna Carta in 1215. By 1216, he was the dominant power in Wales, holding a council at Aberdyfi that year to apportion lands to the other princes.

Following King John's death, Llywelyn concluded the Treaty of Worcester with his successor, Henry III, in 1218. During the next fifteen years, Llywelyn was frequently involved in fights with Marcher lords and sometimes with the king, but also made alliances with several major powers in the Marches. The Peace of Middle in 1234 marked the end of Llywelyn's military career as the agreed truce of two years was extended year by year for the remainder of his reign. He maintained his position in Wales until his death in 1240, and was succeeded by his son Dafydd ap Llywelyn.


Full article ▸

related documents
Louis XIV of France
Wallis, Duchess of Windsor
Edward VII of the United Kingdom
Jane Eyre
Anne of Denmark
Charles Baudelaire
Percy Bysshe Shelley
Mary I of Scotland
Henry VIII of England
Francis Bacon
Benjamin Franklin
Grand Duchess Tatiana Nikolaevna of Russia
Samuel Johnson
Anne Brontë
Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Hernán Cortés
Oscar Wilde
Elizabeth I of England
John Knox
Sally Hemings
Jane Austen
Rhys ap Gruffydd
Maria Feodorovna (Dagmar of Denmark)
William Butler Yeats
Julius Caesar
Honoré de Balzac
John A. Macdonald
Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg
John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough
Constantine II of Scotland