Lunisolar calendar

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A lunisolar calendar is a calendar in many cultures whose date indicates both the moon phase and the time of the solar year. If the solar year is defined as a tropical year then a lunisolar calendar will give an indication of the season; if it is taken as a sidereal year then the calendar will predict the constellation near which the full moon may occur. Usually there is an additional requirement that the year have a whole number of months, in which case most years have twelve months but every second or third year has thirteen.



The Hebrew, Buddhist, Hellenic, Hindu lunisolar, Burmese, Tibetan, Chinese, Vietnamese, Mongolian, and Korean calendars are all lunisolar, as was the Japanese calendar until 1873, the pre-Islamic calendar, the first century Gaulish Coligny calendar, and the Babylonian calendar. The Chinese, Coligny and Hebrew[1] lunisolar calendars track more or less the tropical year whereas the Buddhist and Hindu lunisolar calendars track the sidereal year. Therefore, the first three give an idea of the seasons whereas the last two give an idea of the position among the constellations of the full moon. The Tibetan calendar was influenced by both the Chinese and Hindu calendars. The Germanic peoples also used a lunisolar calendar before their conversion to Christianity.

The Islamic calendar is lunar, but not a lunisolar calendar because its date is not related to the sun. The Julian and Gregorian Calendars are solar, not lunisolar, because their dates do not indicate the moon phase — however, a lunisolar calendar is used in the determination of the Christian celebration of Easter.

Determining leap months

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