Mary of Hungary

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Mary ( – 17 May 1395) (in Hungarian and Slovakian: Mária, in Croatian and Bosnian Marija Anžuvinska) was queen regnant of Hungary[2] from 1382 until her death in 1395.

Contents

Childhood

She was the second of three, but the eldest surviving daughter of Louis the Great and his second wife, Elizabeth of Bosnia.

After the death of her older sister Catherine, Mary was intended to inherit both of her father's kingdoms, Hungary and Poland, or at least the hereditary kingdom of Poland.

Her father king Louis had arranged marriages for her and her younger sister Hedwig. Ultimately Sigismund of Luxemburg (1368–1437), an heir of the Polish Kujavian dynasty and a member of Bohemian royal family, married Mary in 1385 in Zvolen Castle. William of Habsburg then was to marry her younger sister, who however, after Sigismund was expelled by Poles, where he had been living in Kraków since 1381, unexpectedly became Queen of Poland, William married Mary's relative, the future Queen Joan II of Naples, and Hedwig was married to Jogaila of Lithuania.

Reign

Mary became Queen regnant of Hungary as a ten-year-old child after her father's death in 1382 (her elder sister Catherine having died four years earlier). The country was ruled by her mother, the Dowager Queen Elizabeth and by Palatine Nicholas I Garay. Sigismund, his powerful brother Emperor Wenceslaus and many noblemen of Hungary were opposed to them; some noblemen helped Mary's relative Charles of Durazzo, King of Naples to become briefly the King of Hungary in 1385. Queen Elizabeth and Garai had Charles II assassinated in 1386. Charles's heir was his underage son Ladislas of Naples (d. 1414) who attempted all his life to conquer Hungary, but despite some support in the country, did not succeed.

Magnates of Lesser Poland had been deeply unsatisfied with personal union (1370–82) with Hungary, and despite of decreed succession order, chose the nine-year-old Hedwig as the Queen of Poland in 1384. After a couple of years, Hedwig was compelled to leave Hungary for Poland. Mary and her guardians never managed in governing nor obtaining Poland. Halych, the Ruthenian province recently (1340–66) annexed by Poland, however was taken by Hungary, and only after several years, Poland recovered it.

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