Meissen

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Meissen (in German orthography: Meißen; Sorbian: Mišno; Latin: Misena, Misnia, Misnensium) is a town of approximately 30,000 about 25 km (16 mi) northwest of Dresden on both banks of the Elbe river in the Free State of Saxony, in eastern Germany. Meissen is the home of Meissen porcelain, the Albrechtsburg castle, the Gothic Meissen Cathedral and the Meissen Frauenkirche. The Große Kreisstadt is the capital of the Meissen district.

Contents

History

Meissen is sometimes known as the "cradle of Saxony". The city grew out of the early Slavic settlement of Misni inhabited by the Glomacze tribe and was founded as a German town by King Henry the Fowler in 929. In 968, the Diocese of Meissen was founded, and Meissen became the episcopal see of a bishop. The Catholic bishopric was suppressed in 1581 after the diocese accepted the Protestant Reformation (1559), but re-created in 1921 with its seat first at Bautzen and now at the Katholische Hofkirche in Dresden.

The Margraviate of Meissen was founded in 968 as well, with the city as the capital of the Margraves of Meissen. A market town by 1000, Meissen passed to the Kingdom of Poland in 1018 under Boleslaw I the Brave, afterwards into hands of Emperor Conrad II in 1032 and the House of Wettin in 1089. The city was at the forefront of the Ostsiedlung, or intensivating German settlement of the rural Slavic lands east of the Elbe, and its reception of city rights dates to 1332.

The construction of the Meissen Cathedral was started in 1260 on the same hill as the Albrechtsburg castle. The resulting lack of space led to the cathedral being one of the smallest cathedrals in Europe. The church is also known as being one of the most pure examples of Gothic architecture.

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