Mohammed Nadir Shah

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Mohammed Nadir Shah (Pashto: محمد نادر شاه - born Mohammed Nadir; April 9, 1883 - November 8, 1933), was king of the Kingdom of Afghanistan from October 15, 1929 until his assassination in 1933. He and his son Mohammed Zahir Shah, who succeeded him, are sometimes referred to as the Musahiban.


Origins and rise to power

Mohammed Nadir Khan was born in Dehra Dun in India into Mohammadzai section of Barakzai tribe, on April 9, 1883 to Muhammad Yusuf Khan and his first wife Sharaf Sultana. His paternal grandfather was Yahya Khan and his great grandfather was Sultan Muhammad Khan Telai, the brother of Dost Mohammed Khan, who accepted the Sikh dominance in Peshawar. Thus he was a member of the Musahiban branch of the family.[2]

Mohammed Nadir first set foot in Afghanistan at the age of 18 when his grandfather Mohammed Yahya was authorized to return to Afghanistan from exile by the British and Abdur Rahman Khan.[3]

Nadir Khan became a general under Amanullah Khan. He led Afghan forces in the Third Anglo-Afghan War. After the war, Nadir was made Minister of War and Afghan ambassador to France.

Shortly after a rebellion by Pashtun tribesmen and forces of Habibullah Kalakani began against the monarchy, Mohammad Nadir was exiled due to disagreements with King Amanullah. After the overthrow of Amanullah Khan's monarchy by Habibullah Kalakani, Mohammed Nadir returned to India and acquired military support from the British. He returned to Afghanistan with his British supported armies and took most of Afghanistan from Habibullah Kalakani. By October 13 of 1929, Mohammad Nadir Khan captured Kabul and subsequently sacked the city.[4] Nadir Shah then asked for a truce with Habibullah Kalakani and asked him to join him so that they could discuss the political upheavals and come to a resolution [5]. Kalakani accepted Mohammed Nadir's truce and went to Nadir's meeting accompanied by Nadir's religious envoy [5]. Upon his arrival Habibullah Kalakani was shot and hanged (17th October). Mohammad Nadir Khan already declared himself King, or Shah, of Afghanistan on 16th October 1929.


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