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Mohenjo-daro (lit. Mound of the Dead, Sindhi: موئن جو دڙو), pronounced [muˑənⁱ dʑoˑ d̪əɽoˑ]) was one of the largest city-settlements in the Indus Valley Civilization which thrived in ancient times along the Indus River. Mohenjo-daro itself is located in Larkana District in the modern-day province of Sindh, Pakistan. Built before 2600 BCE, the city was one of the early urban settlements in the world, existing at the same time as the civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Crete. The archaeological remains of the city are designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It has been referred to as an "ancient Indus Valley metropolis".[1] The highest temperature ever recorded in Pakistan, 53.5 °C (128.3 °F), was recorded here on 26 May 2010.[2] It is also the highest reliably measured temperature in the continent of Asia, and the fourth highest temperature recorded on earth.[3]


Rediscovery and excavation

Mohenjo-daro was built around 2600 BCE and abandoned around 1500 BCE. It was rediscovered in 1922 by Rakhaldas Bandyopadhyay,[4] an officer of the Archaeological Survey of India. He was led to the mound by a Buddhist monk, who believed it to be a stupa. In the 1930s, massive excavations were conducted under the leadership of John Marshall, K. N. Dikshit, Ernest Mackay, and others.[5] John Marshall's car, which was used by the site directors, is still in the Mohenjo-daro museum, showing their struggle and dedication to Mohenjo-daro. Further excavations were carried out in 1945 by Ahmad Hasan Dani and Mortimer Wheeler.

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