Momentum

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p = γm0v

In classical mechanics, momentum (pl. momenta; SI unit kg·m/s, or, equivalently, N·s) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object (p = mv). In relativistic mechanics, this quantity is multiplied by the Lorentz factor. Momentum is sometimes referred to as linear momentum to distinguish it from the related subject of angular momentum. Linear momentum is a vector quantity, since it has a direction as well as a magnitude. Angular momentum is a pseudovector quantity because it gains an additional sign flip under an improper rotation. The total momentum of any group of objects remains the same unless outside forces act on the objects (law of conservation of momentum).

Momentum is a conserved quantity, meaning that the total momentum of any closed system (one not affected by external forces) cannot change. Although originally expressed in Newton's Second Law, it also holds in special relativity, and with appropriate definitions a (generalized) momentum conservation law holds in electrodynamics, quantum mechanics, quantum field theory, and general relativity.

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