Muslim history

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Muslim history which involves the history of the Islamic faith as a religion and as a social institution. The evolution of Islam has impacted the political, economic, and military history of an enormous geography. The concept of the Islamic world is useful in observing the different periods of Islamic history; similarly useful is an understanding of the identification with a quasi-political community of believers, or ummah, on the section of Islam's practitioners down the centuries. Islamic culture encourages identification with the ummah, and this principle has influenced the behavior of a number of players in history. The history of Islam is closely tied to the political, economic, and military.

A century after the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, an Islamic empire extended from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to Central Asia in the east. The subsequent empires of the Umayyads, Abbasids, the Fatimids, the Mughals, the Safavids, and Ottomans were among the largest and most powerful in the world. The Islamic civilization gave rise to many centers of culture and science and produced notable scientists, astronomers, mathematicians, doctors, nurses and philosophers during the Golden Age of Islam. Technology flourished; there was much investment in economic infrastructure, such as irrigation systems and canals; and especially, the importance of reading the Qur'an produced a comparatively high level of literacy in the general populace.

Later, in the 18th century and 19th century, many Islamic regions fell under the tutelage of European imperial powers. After the First World War, the remnants of the Ottoman empire were parceled out as European protectorates. Since 1924, there has been no major widely accepted claim to the caliphate (which had been last claimed by the Ottomans).

Although affected by various ideologies such as communism, during much of the 20th century, the Islamic identity and the dominance of Islam on political issues have arguably increased during the early 21st century. The fast-growing Western interests in Islamic regions, international conflicts and globalization have changed the influence of Islam on the world of the 21st century.[1]

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