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Naples (Italian: Napoli About this sound listen , pronounced [ˈnaːpoli], Neapolitan: Napule) is a city in Italy; it is the capital of the region of Campania and of the province of Naples. Known for its rich history, art, culture, architecture, music, and gastronomy, Naples has played an important role in the Italian peninsula and beyond[2] for much of its existence, which began more than 2,800 years ago. Situated on the west coast of Italy by the Gulf of Naples, the city is located halfway between two volcanic areas, Mount Vesuvius and the Phlegraean Fields.

Founded in the 9th-8th century BC[3][4] as a Greek colony, which was originally named Παρθενόπη Parthenope and later Νεάπολις Neápolis (New City), Naples is one of the oldest cities in the world. It was among the foremost cities of Magna Graecia, playing a key role in the transmission of Greek culture to Roman society. Naples eventually became part of the Roman Republic as a major cultural center; the premiere Latin poet, Virgil, received part of his education there and later resided in its environs.[5] As a microcosm of European history, Naples has seen several civilizations come and go, each leaving traces in its art and architecture. The most prominent forms of architecture now visible derive from the Medieval, Renaissance, and Baroque periods.

The historic city centre of Naples is the largest in Europe [6] (1,700 hectares),[7] and is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. Over its rich history Naples has been the capital of duchies, kingdoms, and one Empire, as well as a major cultural center (especially during the period of Renaissance humanism and in the 17th through 19th centuries). The city has profoundly influenced many areas of Europe and beyond.[8] In the immediate vicinity of Naples are various sites (e.g., the Palace of Caserta, Pompeii, and Herculaneum) that are strongly related to the city for historical, artistic, architectural reasons.

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