Network address translation

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In computer networking, network address translation (NAT) is the process of modifying network address information in datagram (IP) packet headers while in transit across a traffic routing device for the purpose of remapping one IP address space into another.

Most often today, NAT is used in conjunction with network masquerading (or IP masquerading) which is a technique that hides an entire IP address space, usually consisting of private network IP addresses (RFC 1918), behind a single IP address in another, often public address space. This mechanism is implemented in a routing device that uses stateful translation tables to map the "hidden" addresses into a single IP address and readdresses the outgoing Internet Protocol (IP) packets on exit so that they appear to originate from the router. In the reverse communications path, responses are mapped back to the originating IP address using the rules ("state") stored in the translation tables. The translation table rules established in this fashion are flushed after a short period unless new traffic refreshes their state.

As described, the method enables communication through the router only when the conversation originates in the masqueraded network, since this establishes the translation tables. For example, a web browser in the masqueraded network can browse a website outside, but a web browser outside could not browse a web site in the masqueraded network. However, most NAT devices today allow the network administrator to configure translation table entries for permanent use. This feature is often referred to as "static NAT" or port forwarding and allows traffic originating in the "outside" network to reach designated hosts in the masqueraded network.

Because of the popularity of this technique (see below), the term NAT has become virtually synonymous with the method of IP masquerading.

Network address translation has serious consequences, both drawbacks and benefits, on the quality of Internet connectivity and requires careful attention to the details of its implementation. As a result, many methods have been devised to alleviate the issues encountered. See the article on NAT traversal.


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