Nitrate

related topics
{acid, form, water}
{island, water, area}
{specie, animal, plant}
{disease, patient, cell}
{system, computer, user}

The nitrate ion is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula NO
3
and a molecular mass of 62.0049 g/mol. It is the conjugate base of nitric acid, consisting of one central nitrogen atom surrounded by three identical oxygen atoms in a trigonal planar arrangement. The nitrate ion carries a formal charge of negative one, where each oxygen carries a −23 charge whereas the nitrogen carries a +1 charge, and is commonly used as an example of resonance. Like the isoelectronic carbonate ion, the nitrate ion can be represented by resonance structures:

Almost all inorganic nitrate salts are soluble in water at standard temperature and pressure.

In organic chemistry a nitrate (not to be confused with nitro) is a functional group with general chemical formula RONO2 where R stands for any organic residue. They are the esters of nitric acid and alcohols formed by nitroxylation. Examples are methyl nitrate formed by reaction of methanol and nitric acid,[1] the nitrate of tartaric acid,[2] and the inappropriately named nitroglycerin.

Contents

Related materials

Nitrate should not be confused with nitrite (NO
2
), the salts of nitrous acid. Organic compounds containing the nitro functional group (which has the same formula and structure as the nitrate ion save that one of the O atoms is replaced by the group) are known as nitro compounds.

Human health effects

Nitrate toxicosis in humans occurs through enterohepatic metabolism of nitrate to ammonia, with nitrite being an intermediate[3]. Nitrites oxidize the iron atoms in hemoglobin from ferrous iron (2+) to ferric iron (3+), rendering it unable to carry oxygen[4]. This process can lead to generalized lack of oxygen in organ tissue and a dangerous condition called methemoglobinemia. Methemoglobinemia can be treated with methylene blue, which reduces ferric iron (3+) in affected blood cells back to ferrous iron (2+).

Full article ▸

related documents
Solution
Peroxide
Barium
Hydrate
Racemic mixture
Protein biosynthesis
Cytochrome
Calcite
GTPase
Urea cycle
Protein kinase
Rubidium-strontium dating
Gram staining
Holmium
Francium
Evaporation
Anaerobic organism
Ketone
Geochemistry
Glycosidic bond
Trypsin
Peroxisome
Dysprosium
Amide
Spray drying
Vacuole
Chloroplast
Rhenium
Sulfur mustard
Buffer solution