Northern Crusades

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{war, force, army}
{church, century, christian}
{land, century, early}
{area, part, region}
{country, population, people}
{line, north, south}
{county, mile, population}
{son, year, death}
{language, word, form}

Reconquista – Sardinian – First – People's – 1101 – Norwegian – Balearic – Wendish – Second – Third – 1197 – Livonian – Fourth – Albigensian – Children's – Fifth – Sixth – Prussian – Second Swedish – Seventh – Eighth – Ninth – Aragonese – Third Swedish – Smyrniote – Alexandrian – Savoyard – Mahdia – Nicopolis – Varna – Lepanto – Armada

The Northern Crusades[1] or Baltic Crusades[2] were crusades undertaken by the Christian kings of Denmark and Sweden, the German Livonian and Teutonic military orders, and their allies against the pagan peoples of Northern Europe around the southern and eastern shores of the Baltic Sea. Swedish and German Catholic campaigns against Russian Eastern Orthodox Christians are also sometimes considered part of the Northern Crusades.[1][3] Some of these wars were called crusades during the Middle Ages, but others, including most of the Swedish ones, were first dubbed crusades by 19th century romantic nationalist historians. The east Baltic world was transformed by military conquest: first the Livs, Latgallians and Estonians, then the Semigallians, Curonians, Prussians and the Finns underwent defeat, baptism, military occupation and sometimes extermination by groups of Danes, Germans and Swedes.[4]

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