Norwegian krone

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The krone [ˈkɾuːnə] (or krona[1][2]) (sign: kr; code: NOK) is the currency of Norway. The plural form is kroner (or kronor [3]).[dubious ] It is subdivided into 100 øre. The ISO 4217 code is NOK, although the common local abbreviation is kr. The name translates into English as "crown".

Contents

History

The krone was introduced in 1875, replacing the Norwegian speciedaler at a rate of 4 kroner = 1 speciedaler. In doing so, Norway joined the Scandinavian Monetary Union, which had been established in 1873. The Union persisted until 1914 but, after its dissolution, Denmark, Norway and Sweden all decided to keep the names of their respective and now separate currencies.

Within the Scandinavian Monetary Union, the krone was on a gold standard of 2480 kroner = 1 kilogram of pure gold (1 krone = 403.226 milligrams gold). This gold standard was restored between 1916 and 1920 and again in 1928 but was suspended permanently in 1931, when a peg to the British pound of 19.9 kroner = 1 pound was established (the previous rate had been 18.16 kroner = 1 pound). In 1939, Norway pegged the krone temporarily to the U.S. dollar at a rate of 4.4 kroner = 1 dollar.

During the German occupation in World War II, the krone was pegged to the Reichsmark at a rate of 1 krone = 0.6 Reichsmark initially, later reduced to 0.57. After the war, a rate of 20 kroner = 1 pound (4.963 kroner = 1 U.S. dollar) was established. The rate to the pound was maintained in 1949 when the pound devalued relative to the U.S. dollar, leading to a rate of 7.142 kroner = 1 U.S. dollar. In December 1992 the Norges Bank (Central Bank of Norway) abandoned the fixed exchange rate in favor of a floating exchange rate (managed float) due to the heavy speculation against the Norwegian currency in the early 1990s which lost the Norwegian central bank around two billion kroner in defensive purchases of the NOK through usage of foreign currency reserves for a relatively short period of time.

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