Nosology

related topics
{disease, patient, cell}
{language, word, form}
{land, century, early}
{group, member, jewish}
{mi², represent, 1st}

Nosology (from the Greek νόσος, nosos, "disease" + λόγος "logos") is a branch of medicine that deals with classification of diseases.

Contents

Types of Classification

Diseases may be classified by etiology (cause), pathogenesis (mechanism by which the disease is caused), or by symptom(s). Alternatively, diseases may be classified according to the organ system involved, though this is often complicated since many diseases affect more than one organ.

A chief difficulty in nosology is that diseases often cannot be defined and classified clearly, especially when etiology or pathogenesis are unknown. Thus diagnostic terms often only reflect a symptom or set of symptoms (syndrome).

History

One of the earliest efforts at developing a classification of diseases began in the 10th century, when the Arabian psychologist Najab ud-din Unhammad classified a nosology of nine major categories of mental disorders, which included 30 different mental illnesses in total. Some of the categories he described included obsessive-compulsive disorders, delusional disorders, degenerative diseases, involutional melancholia, and states of abnormal excitement.[1][verification needed]

In the 18th century, the taxonomist Carolus Linnaeus, Francois Boissier de Sauvages, and psychiatrist Phillipe Pinel developed an early classification of physical illnesses. Thomas Sydenham's work in the late 17th century might also be considered a nosology. In the 19th century, Emil Kraepelin and then Jacques Bertillon developed their own nosologies. Bertillon's work, classifying causes of death, was a precursor of the modern code system, the International Classification of Diseases.

The early nosological efforts grouped diseases by their symptoms, whereas modern systems (e.g. SNOMED) focus on grouping diseases by the anatomy and etiology involved.

Full article ▸

related documents
Phosphodiesterase inhibitor
Urethritis
Neuropil
Specific phobia
Acrochordon
Jejunum
Acromegaly
Retinopathy
Shock (circulatory)
Ganglion
Neurosurgery
Alpha-Methyltryptamine
Warkany syndrome 2
Gland
Campylobacter
Kidneys, ureters, and bladder
Infectious disease in the 20th century
George Whipple
Paranasal sinuses
Glans penis
Paroxysmal attack
Hepatology
Viscus
Arginine
Gumma (pathology)
Bacillus cereus
Gonad
Bipolar I disorder
Bipolar spectrum
Patient-controlled analgesia