Nuclear magnetic resonance

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Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a property that magnetic nuclei have in a magnetic field and applied electromagnetic (EM) pulse or pulses, which cause the nuclei to absorb energy from the EM pulse and radiate this energy back out. The energy radiated back out is at a specific resonance frequency which depends on the strength of the magnetic field and other factors. This allows the observation of specific quantum mechanical magnetic properties of an atomic nucleus. Many scientific techniques exploit NMR phenomena to study molecular physics, crystals and non-crystalline materials through NMR spectroscopy. NMR is also routinely used in advanced medical imaging techniques, such as in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

All stable isotopes that contain an odd number of protons and/or of neutrons (see Isotope) have an intrinsic magnetic moment and angular momentum, in other words a nonzero spin, while all nuclides with even numbers of both have spin 0. The most commonly studied nuclei are 1
H
(the most NMR-sensitive isotope after the radioactive 3
H
) and 13
C
, although nuclei from isotopes of many other elements (e.g. 2
H
, 10
B
, 11
B
, 14
N
, 15
N
, 17
O
, 19
F
, 23
Na
, 29
Si
, 31
P
, 35
Cl
, 113
Cd
, 129
Xe
, 195
Pt
) are studied by high-field NMR spectroscopy as well.

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