Organizers of the September 11 attacks

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According to the conclusions of a 2004 report of the 9/11 Commission, the September 11 attacks were carried out by 19 al-Qaeda terrorists who each assumed the role of hijacker of the aircraft they boarded on 9/11.

They were planned and organized by numerous other members of al-Qaeda, as well as the lead member and hijacker-pilot in each group. The first "muscle hijackers", who were trained to help subdue the pilots, passengers, and crew, to arrive in the United States were Khalid al-Mihdhar and Nawaf al-Hazmi, who settled in the San Diego area in January 2000. They were followed by three hijacker-pilots, Mohamed Atta, Marwan al-Shehhi, and Ziad Jarrah early in the summer of 2000 to undertake flight training in south Florida. The fourth hijacker-pilot, Hani Hanjour, arrived in San Diego in December 2000. The rest of the "muscle hijackers", arrived in the spring and early summer of 2001.



The 2001 attacks were preceded by the less well known Bojinka plot which was planned in the Philippines by Ramzi Yousef of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing and Khalid Shaikh Mohammed to blow up twelve airliners[1] and their approximately 4,000 passengers as they flew from Asia to the United States. The plan included crashing a plane into the CIA headquarters, leading credence that Khalid Shaikh Mohammed evolved this plot into the September 11 attacks[2] The plot was disrupted in January 1995 after a chemical fire drew Filipino police attention, resulting in the arrest of one terrorist and seizure of a laptop containing the plans. One person was killed in the course of the plot — a Japanese passenger seated near a nitroglycerin bomb on Philippine Airlines Flight 434. The money handed down to the plotters originated from Al-Qaeda, the international Islamic jihadi organization then based in Sudan.

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