Origins of chess

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The history of chess spans some 1500 years. The earliest predecessors of the game originated in India, prior to the 6th century AD. From India, the game spread to Persia. When the Arabs conquered Persia, chess was taken up by the Muslim world and subsequently spread to Southern Europe. In Europe, the game evolved into its current form in the 15th century. In the second half of the 19th century, modern tournament play began, and the first world chess championship was held in 1886. The 20th century saw great leaps forward in chess theory and the establishment of the World Chess Federation (FIDE). Developments in the 21st century include the employment of computers for analysis, which actually based back in the 70's with the very first programmed chess games on the market. Also team consultations, and online gaming appeared in the mid 90's.

Contents

Origin

The precursors of chess originated in India during the Gupta empire,[1][2][3][4] where its early form in the 6th century was known as chaturaṅga, which translates as "four divisions [of the military]": infantry, cavalry, elephantry, and chariotry, represented by the pieces that would evolve into the modern pawn, knight, bishop, and rook, respectively.[5] In Sassanid Persia around 600 the name became shatranj and the rules were developed further, and players started calling "Shāh!" (Persian for "King!") when attacking the opponent's king, and "Shāh māt!" (Persian for "the king is dead") when the king was attacked and could not escape from attack; these exclamations persisted in chess as it traveled to other lands thereafter.

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