Partial pressure

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In a mixture of ideal gases, each gas has a partial pressure which is the pressure which the gas would have if it alone occupied the volume.[1] The total pressure of a gas mixture is the sum of the partial pressures of each individual gas in the mixture.

In chemistry, the partial pressure of a gas in a mixture of gases is defined as above. The partial pressure of a gas dissolved in a liquid is the partial pressure of that gas which would be generated in a gas phase in equilibrium with the liquid at the same temperature. The partial pressure of a gas is a measure of thermodynamic activity of the gas's molecules. Gases will always flow from a region of higher partial pressure to one of lower pressure; the larger this difference, the faster the flow. Gases dissolve, diffuse, and react according to their partial pressures, and not necessarily according to their concentrations in a gas mixture.

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Dalton's law of partial pressures

The partial pressure of an ideal gas in a mixture is equal to the pressure it would exert if it occupied the same volume alone at the same temperature. This is because ideal gas molecules are so far apart that they don't interfere with each other at all. Actual real-world gases come very close to this ideal.

A consequence of this is that the total pressure of a mixture of ideal gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the individual gases in the mixture as stated by Dalton's law.[2] For example, given an ideal gas mixture of nitrogen (N2), hydrogen (H2) and ammonia (NH3):

Ideal gas mixtures

Ideally the ratio of partial pressures is the same as the ratio of molecules. That is, the mole fraction of an individual gas component in an ideal gas mixture can be expressed in terms of the component's partial pressure or the moles of the component:

and the partial pressure of an individual gas component in an ideal gas can be obtained using this expression:

The mole fraction of a gas component in a gas mixture is equal to the volumetric fraction of that component in a gas mixture.[3]

Partial volume

The partial volume of a particular gas is the volume which the gas would have if it alone occupied the volume, with unchanged pressure and temperature, and is useful in gas mixtures, e.g. air, to focus on one particular gas component, e.g. oxygen.

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