Pawnee

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English, Caddoan Pawnee

Christianity, Native American Church, other

Arikara, Caddo, Kitsai, and Wichita

The Pawnee (also Paneassa, Pari, Pariki) are a Caddoan-language Native American tribe that historically lived along outlying tributaries of the Missouri River: the Platte, Loup and Republican Rivers in present-day Nebraska and in Northern Kansas. They were one of the dominant tribes on the Great Plains and followed a way of life whose major patterns had been continuous since about 1250 CE. In the 1830s, they still numbered about 12,000 people, as they had escaped some of the depredations of exposure to Eurasian infectious diseases. They have a ritual named Trails of tears From Nebraska to Oklahoma where they were exiled.

By 1859, their numbers were reduced to about 3,400 and they entered a reservation in Nebraska. Still subject to pressure from Lakota and European Americans, finally, most accepted relocation to a reservation in Oklahoma. This is where the nation primarily lives today. The Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma is federally recognized. Their autonym is Chaticks-si-Chaticks, meaning "Men of men".

There are approximately 3,210 enrolled Pawnee, with 1,725 living in Oklahoma. Their tribal headquarters is in Pawnee, Oklahoma and George E. Howell is their President. They issue their own vehicle license tags, operate their housing authority, and maintain two casinos, four smoke shops, two fuel stations, and one truck stop. Their estimated economic impact is $10.5 million.[1]

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