Pedro I of Brazil

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Pedro I of Brazil (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈpedɾu]; English: Peter I, October 12, 1798 – September 24, 1834), was the founder and first ruler of the Empire of Brazil and also King of Portugal as Pedro IV, having reigned for 8 years and almost 2 months, respectively. His full name was Pedro de Alcântara Francisco António João Carlos Xavier de Paula Miguel Rafael Joaquim José Gonzaga Pascoal Cipriano Serafim[1] (English: Peter of Alcantara Francis Anthony John Charles Xavier of Paula Michael Raphael Joachim Joseph Gonzaga Pascal Cyprian Seraph.). He was born on 12 October 1798, in Queluz, the fourth child of King Dom João VI of Portugal and Infanta Charlotte of Spain. The Emperor-King was a member of the Portuguese branch and founder of the Brazilian branch of the House of Braganza and was referred to using the honorific "Dom" (English: Don).[2]


Early years

Pedro was born on 12 October 1798 at the Palácio Nacional de Queluz, near Lisbon. His father was the prince regent at the time and would later become King John VI of Portugal (João VI); his mother was Charlotte of Spain (Carlota Joaquina), daughter of Charles IV of Spain; he was the royal couple's second child. When his elder brother the Infante (Prince) António Francisco died in 1801, Pedro was made Prince of Beira as he was the heir-apparent of the then-Prince of Brazil, his father. In 1807, when Pedro was nine, the royal family left Portugal as an invading French Army approached Lisbon. (See Napoleonic Wars.) They arrived in Brazil with an English escort in early 1808. The family would remain in the country for 13 years. Their presence made Rio de Janeiro the de facto capital of the Portuguese Empire, and led to Brazil's elevation to the status of a kingdom co-equal with Portugal.

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