Periodontitis

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Periodontitis is a set of inflammatory diseases affecting the periodontium, i.e., the tissues that surround and support the teeth. Periodontitis involves progressive loss of the alveolar bone around the teeth, and if left untreated, can lead to the loosening and subsequent loss of teeth. Periodontitis is caused by microorganisms that adhere to and grow on the tooth's surfaces, along with an overly aggressive immune response against these microorganisms. A diagnosis of periodontitis is established by inspecting the soft gum tissues around the teeth with a probe (i.e. a clinical exam) and by evaluating the patient's x-ray films (i.e. a radiographic exam), to determine the amount of bone loss around the teeth.[1] Specialists in the treatment of periodontitis are periodontists; their field is known as "periodontology" or "periodontics".

The word "periodontitis" comes from peri ("around"), odont ("tooth") and -itis ("inflammation").

Contents

Classification

The 1999 classification system for periodontal diseases and conditions listed seven major categories of periodontal diseases,[2] of which the last six are termed destructive periodontal disease because they are essentially irreversible. The seven categories are as follows:

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