Pharaoh

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Pharaoh is a title used in many modern discussions of the ancient Egyptian rulers of all periods.[1] The title originates in the term ‘’pr-aa’’ which means ‘’great house’’ and describes the royal palace. The title of Pharaoh started being used for the king during the New Kingdom, specifically during the middle of the eighteenth dynasty.[2] For simplification, however, there is a general acceptance amongst modern writers to use the term to relate to all periods.

Contents

History of the Pharaoh title

Pharaoh, meaning "Great House", originally referred to the king's palace, but by the reign of Thutmose III (ca. 1479-1425 BC) in the New Kingdom had become a form of address for the person of the king.[3]

The term pharaoh ultimately was derived from a compound word represented as pr-`3, written with the two biliteral hieroglyphs pr "house" and `3 "column". It was used only in larger phrases such as smr pr-`3 'Courtier of the High House', with specific reference to the buildings of the court or palace itself.[4] From the twelfth dynasty onward the word appears in a wish formula 'Great House, may it live, prosper, and be in health', but again only with reference to the royal palace and not the person.

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