Philippe Pétain

related topics
{war, force, army}
{government, party, election}
{son, year, death}
{law, state, case}
{theory, work, human}
{area, part, region}
{service, military, aircraft}
{school, student, university}
{black, white, people}
{town, population, incorporate}

Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (French pronunciation: [petɛ̃]; 24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain (Maréchal Pétain), was a French general who reached the distinction of Marshal of France, and was later Chief of State of Vichy France (Chef de l'État Français), from 1940 to 1944. Pétain, who was 84 years old in 1940, ranks as France's oldest head of state.

Because of his outstanding military leadership in World War I, particularly during the Battle of Verdun, he was viewed as a national hero in France. With the imminent French defeat in June 1940, Pétain was appointed Premier of France by President Lebrun at Bordeaux, and the Cabinet resolved to make peace with Germany. The entire government subsequently moved, briefly, to Clermont-Ferrand, then to the spa town of Vichy in central France. His government voted to transform the discredited French Third Republic into the French State, an authoritarian regime. As the war progressed, the government at Vichy collaborated with the Germans, who in 1942 finally occupied the whole of metropolitan France because of the threat from North Africa. Petain's actions during World War II resulted in what many regard as a show-trial, with conviction and death sentence for treason, which was commuted to life imprisonment by his former protégé Charles de Gaulle. In modern France he is remembered as an ambiguous figure while pétainisme is a derogatory term for certain reactionary policies.


Full article ▸

related documents
Võ Nguyên Giáp
Battle of Naseby
Marco Polo Bridge Incident
Battle of New Orleans
Battle of Cambrai (1917)
George Meade
Qibya massacre
Battle of Pydna
Battle of Adwa
Bloody Sunday (1972)
Norman conquest of England
Battle of Leuctra
Great Northern War
Battle of Crécy
Lucius Afranius (consul)
Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
Folke Bernadotte
Jameson Raid
Frederick Augustus I of Saxony
Vyacheslav Molotov
Ariel Sharon
Prisoner of war
Roman conquest of Britain
European influence in Afghanistan
Abdul Rashid Dostum
Seleucid Empire
Siege of Orléans