A phonetic complement is a phonetic symbol used to disambiguate word characters (logograms) that have multiple readings, in mixed logographic-phonetic scripts such as Egyptian hieroglyphs, Akkadian cuneiform, Japanese, and Mayan. Often they reenforce the communication of the ideogram by repeating the first or last syllable in the term.
Written English has few logograms, primarily numerals, and therefore few phonetic complements. An example is the nd of 2nd 'second', which avoids ambiguity with 2 standing for the word 'two'. Hypothetically, if English had a more developed system of phonetic complements parallel with the scripts mentioned above, there might be a convention of writing 2ble for 'double', 2ple for 'couple', 2ary for 'February' (the second month), b2y for 'binary', 2r for 'pair', o2r for 'other' (which historically meant 'second'), 2in for 'twin', 2ni 'Gemini' ("the Twins"), etc. Use of logograms in English, and hence phonetic complements, is considered informal, and avoided in formal writing. In addition to numerals, other examples include Xmas, Xianity, and Xing for Christmas, Christianity, and Crossing – note the separate readings Christ and Cross.
In Sumerian, the single word kur had two meanings: 'hill' and 'country'. Akkadian, however, had separate words for these two meanings: šadú 'hill' and mātu 'country'. When Sumerian cuneiform was adapted for writing Akkadian, this was ambiguous because both words were written with the same character (conventionally transcribed KUR, after its Sumerian pronunciation). To alert the reader as to which Akkadian word was intended, the phonetic complement -ú was written after KUR if hill was intended, so that the characters KUR-ú were pronounced šadú, whereas KUR without a phonetic complement was understood to mean mātu 'country'.
Phonetic complements also indicated the Akkadian nominative and genitive cases.
Phonetic complements should not be confused with determinatives (which were also used to disambiguate) since determinatives were used specifically to indicate the category of the word they preceded or followed. For example, the sign DINGIR often precedes names of gods, as LUGAL does for kings. It is not believed that determinatives were pronounced.
As in Akkadian, Japanese borrowed a logographic script, Chinese, designed for a very different language. The Chinese phonetic components built into these kanji do not work when they are pronounced in Japanese, and there is not a one-to-one relationship between them and the Japanese words they represent.
For example, the kanji 生, pronounced shō or sei in borrowed Chinese vocabulary, stands for several native Japanese words as well. When these words have inflectional endings (verbs/adjectives and adverbs), the end of the stem is written phonetically:
- 生 nama 'raw' or ki 'alive'
- 生う [生u] o-u 'expand'
- 生きる [生kiru] i-kiru 'live'
- 生かす [生kasu] i-kasu 'arrange'
- 生ける [生keru] i-keru 'live'
- 生む [生mu] u-mu 'produce'
- 生まれる or 生れる [生mareru or 生reru] u-mareru or uma-reru 'be born'
- 生える [生eru] ha-eru 'grow' (intransitive)
- 生やす [生yasu] ha-yasu 'grow' (transitive)
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